Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

Importance of the topic : Prevention and treatment of infection in the wound and in the body as a whole remains today one of the most pressing problems not only in surgery, but also in various branches of medicine. Despite what has been achieved in the development of methods for the prevention and treatment of infection, there remains a rather high risk of developing infectious postoperative complications and an increase in the number of patients with extensive infectious processes who are resistant to traditional treatment.

Asepsis and Antiseptics - Sepsis and Asepsis Technique


Learning objectives:

Common goal:

the student must get a complete understanding of the modern principles of asepsis and antiseptics, the requirements for suture and dressing material, methods of disinfection, pre-sterilization preparation and sterilization, teach modern methods of treating hands and the operating field.

Learning goal:

the student must Know: the definition, the rules of asepsis and antiseptics, the main ways of spreading surgical infection and methods of their prevention. Features of the device of a surgical hospital, the sanitary and hygienic mode of operation of the reception and diagnostic department, the surgical department and the operating unit in accordance with Order No. 720 of the USSR Ministry of Health, 1978. General principles of disinfection, pre-sterilization preparation, sterilization. Features of sterilization of a surgical instrument infected with a pyogenic, anaerobic, viral infection.

Methods for controlling the quality of pre-sterilization preparation and sterilization. Sources of implantation infection and methods of its prevention. Requirements for suture and dressing material, their characteristics. Bix stacking methods. Modern methods of treating the surgeon’s hands. The role and significance of endogenous infection in surgery, methods of its prevention. Rules for processing the operating field (Filonchikov-Grossich principle). Significance of nosocomial infection in surgery. Classification of antiseptics. Types of mechanical, physical, chemical, biological antiseptics, indications for their use

To be able to: disinfect, pre-sterilize preparation and sterilization of surgical instruments, syringes, catheters, drains in accordance with Order No. 720 of the USSR Ministry of Health 1978. Handle hands for surgery , put on a sterile gown, process the operating field. Select the appropriate suture material for the specific operation. Carry out the prevention of airborne infection. To carry out the prevention of endogenous infection. Be able to use the methods of mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological antiseptics in the treatment of surgical infection.

Psychological and pedagogical goal:

To form students’ understanding of the importance of the topic under study in the practice of a doctor, the importance of observing the rules of biomedical ethics and deontology. Develop responsibility for decision making, spirituality, morality. To cultivate a benevolent attitude towards the sick.

lace of the practical lesson:

study room, hospital wards, reception and diagnostic department, dressing room.

Equipment of the lesson:

a set of computer slides and multimedia programs, diagrams and tables, a set of analyzes.

The structure of the content of the topic

“Sterilization of surgical instruments and materials” (chronocard of the lesson)

Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

№ p / p Stages of the

practicallesson

Duration of thelesson (min) Stage content and equipment
one Organization of the lesson five Checking the attendance and appearance of the student
2 Formulation of the topic and purpose five The teacher announces the topic and its relevance, importance in surgical practice , the purpose of the lesson.
3 Control of the initial level of knowledge and skills fifteen Frontal survey, testing in writing.Test tasks in the amount of 5 questions. Checking answers according to standard templates. Assessment on a 5-point scale.

If the assessment is unsatisfactory, the student is considered unprepared for the lesson, he may be present, but in order to receive a positive assessment, he must prepare an essay on the topic of the lesson and be tested in a computer class.

four Disclosure of educational target issues 55 Instructing students by the teacher on the main issues of this topic.
five Joint work of students with a teacher (current control):a) familiarity with the methods of disinfection, pre-sterilization preparation

b) analysis of methods

c) identification of typical mistakes and discussion of the features of sterilization in pyogenic, anaerobic, viral infections

thirty Students’ work:a) in the dressing room, in the endoscopy rooms, CSO;

b) demonstration by the curator of practical skills in conducting disinfection methods, pre-sterilization preparation, quality control of pre-sterilization preparation and sterility by examination.

6 Final control of knowledge in writing with the announcement of the assessment of each student for theoretical knowledge and practical skills on the studied topic of the lesson. twenty Solving situational problems on the topic , testing in writing.
7 Homework assignment to prepare for the next lesson five Educational-methodical development of the next lesson, individual assignments.
Total 135

 

“Antiseptics and suture material” (chronocard of the lesson)

Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

№ p / p Stages of thepractical

lesson

Duration of thelesson (min) Stage content and equipment
one Organization of the lesson five Checking the attendance and appearance of the student
2 Formulation of the topic and purpose five The teacher announces the topic and its relevance, importance in surgical practice, the purpose of the lesson.
3 Control of the initial level of knowledge and skills fifteen Frontal survey, testing in writing.Test tasks in the amount of 5 questions. Checking answers according to standard templates. Assessment on a 5-point scale.

If the assessment is unsatisfactory, the student is considered unprepared for the lesson, he may be present, but in order to receive a positive assessment, he must prepare an essay on the topic of the lesson and be tested in a computer class.

four Disclosure of educational target issues 55 Instructing students by the teacher on the main issues of this topic.
five Joint work of students with the teacher (current control):a) familiarity with the use of various methods of antiseptics and suture material for the treatment of wounds.

b) analysis of methods

c) identification of typical mistakes and discussion of the peculiarities of using antiseptic methods

thirty The work of students:a) in the dressing room;

b) demonstration by the curator of practical skills in the use of various methods of antiseptics and suture material.

6 Final control of knowledge in writing with the announcement of the assessment of each student for theoretical knowledge and practical skills on the studied topic of the lesson. twenty Solving situational problems on the topic, testing in writing.
7 Homework assignment to prepare for the next lesson five Educational-methodical development of the next lesson, individual assignments.
Total 135

 

“Handling of hands and surgical field” (chronocard of the lesson)

Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

№ p / p Stages of thepractical

lesson

Duration of thelesson (min) Stage content and equipment
one Organization of the lesson five Checking the attendance and appearance of the student
2 Formulation of the topic and purpose five The teacher announces the topic and its relevance, importance in surgical practice, the purpose of the lesson.
3 Control of the initial level of knowledge and skills fifteen Frontal survey, testing in writing.Test tasks in the amount of 5 questions. Checking answers according to standard templates. Assessment on a 5-point scale. If the assessment is unsatisfactory, the student is considered unprepared for the lesson, he may be present, but in order to receive a positive assessment, he must prepare an essay on the topic of the lesson and be tested in a computer class.
four Disclosure of educational target issues 55 Instructing students by the teacher on the main issues of this topic.
five Joint work of students with the teacher (current control):a) familiarity with the ways of spreading surgical infection and modern methods of processing the surgeon’s hands and the operating field

b) analysis of methods

c) identification of typical errors and discussion of the peculiarities of using antiseptic methods

thirty The work of students:a) in the dressing room; in the department of surgical wards

b) demonstration by the curator of practical skills in preventing the spread of exogenous and endogenous infections, methods of treating the surgeon’s hands and the operating field.

6 Final control of knowledge in writing with the announcement of the assessment of each student for theoretical knowledge and practical skills on the studied topic of the lesson. twenty Solving situational problems on the topic, testing in writing.
7 Homework assignment to prepare for the next lesson five Educational-methodical development of the next lesson, individual assignments.
Total 135

 

Annotation

Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

Asepsis

Asepsis (a – without, septicus – rotting) – aseptic method of work.

Asepsis is a set of methods and techniques of work aimed at preventing infection from entering the wound, into the patient’s body, creating microbial, sterile conditions for surgical work. This is achieved through the use of organizational measures, active disinfecting chemicals, as well as technical means and physical factors.

The importance of organizational measures should be especially emphasized: it is they that become decisive. In modern asepsis, two of its basic principles have been preserved: 1 everything that comes into contact with the wound must be sterile; All surgical patients must be divided into two streams: “clean” and “purulent”.

Antiseptic

Antiseptic (anti – against, septicus – rot) – anti-rotting method of work. The term was introduced in 1750 by the English surgeon J. Pringle, who described the antiseptic effect of quinine.

Asepsis and Antiseptics – Sepsis and Asepsis Technique

Antiseptics is a system of measures aimed at destroying microorganisms in a wound, pathological focus, organs and tissues, as well as in the patient’s body as a whole. For this purpose, mechanical and physical methods of exposure, active chemicals and biological factors are used.

Thus, if asepsis prevents microorganisms from entering the wound, then antiseptics destroys them in the wound and the patient‘s body.