Hypoxia: etiology, pathogenesis and indicators, main types of hypoxia

Test task on Hypoxia:

 1. Due to air pollution from exhaust gases and industrial fumes, hypoxia develops:
A. exogenous
B. respiratory
B. hemic
G. fabric
D. endogenous
2. For exogenous hypoxia is characteristic
A. increased hemoglobin oxygen saturation
B. hypercapnia
C. hypoxemia, hypocapnia
D. increased blood oxygen capacity
E. high arterio-venous oxygen difference
3. For respiratory hypoxia is characteristic
A. high oxygen tension in the venous bed
B. increased arterio-venous oxygen difference
C. hyperoxia
D. high percentage of oxygen saturation Hb in arterial blood
E. reduced MS O2 in arterial blood
4. The reasons for the development of circulatory hypoxia in heart attack are:
A. reduced myocardial contractility
B. reduced blood oxygen capacity
C. blockade of somatic cell mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
D. reducing the volume of circulating blood
E. disorders of the respiratory system
F. decrease in minute blood volume
G. reduced blood oxygen saturation
H. changes in the rheological properties of blood
5. Three morphological structures have the least sensitivity to hypoxia:
A. bones
B. heart
C. cartilage
D. light
E. the liver
F. the brain
G. spleen
H. muscles
6. The most sensitive to oxygen starvation is:
A. the liver
B. bone tissue
C. kidney
D. the brain
E. spleen
F. cartilage tissue
G. muscles
H. light
7. When nitrite poisoning occurs
A. exogenous type of hypoxiaa
B. tissue type of hypoxia
C. hemic type of hypoxia
D. endogenous type of hypoxia
E. circulatory type of hypoxia
8. Methemoglobin is formed when hemoglobin is combined with
A. metals
B. nitrates, nitrites
C. carbon monoxide
D. methane
E. hydrogen sulfide
9. Tissue hypoxia is characterized by
A. lowering the arterio-venous oxygen difference
B. hypercapnia
C. hypoxemia
D. increased blood oxygen capacity
E. lowering the saturation hemoglobin arterial blood oxygen
10. Poisoning with exhaust gases can cause the drivers to the development of hypoxiaa
A. hemic
B. fabric
C. circulatory
D. respiratory
E. exogenous

3. Situational tasks:
№1. The drug addict died from an overdose of a narcotic substance. What type of hypoxia has led to a fatal outcome? Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology.
Answer: in the overdose of narcotic substances histotoxic hypoxiaa occurs. As in this case the narcotic substances inactivate the enzyme dehydrogenases because of which tissue oxygenation is inhibited. Thus, tissue becomes enable to use the oxygen.
№2 The driver had carbon monoxide poisoning in the garage. What type of hypoxia can a driver develop? Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology.
Answer: in the carbon monoxide poisoning anemic hypoxia occurs. As in this case oxygen cannot be transported because CO binds more readily to the haemoglobin displacing oxygen and forming carboxyhaemoglobin.
№3 On a hot, windless day, a traffic controller in the city, after 2 hours of work, felt ringing in his ears, weak legs,dizziness, and yawning. What type of hypoxia can a traffic controller develop? Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology. The mechanism of development of symptoms.
Answer:
№4 A patient was delivered in a state of hypoxia due to a head injury. What type of hypoxia has the patient developed? Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology.
Answer:
№5 The patient took a large number of sulfonamides. During the blood test, a large amount of methemoglobin was found. What type of hypoxia has the patient developed? Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology. Explain the pathogenesis of this pathology.
Answer: in this case patient have tissue hypoxia. As in this case affinity of ferric ion for oxygen is impaired and the binding of oxygen to methemoglobin results in an increased affinity for oxygen in the remaining heme sites that are in ferrous state within the same tetrameric haemoglobin unit. This leads to an overall reduced ability of RBCs to release oxygen to tissues. 

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