Neuroses – higher nervous activity Pathology, Types, Causes, Methods

Pathology of higher nervous activity – Neuroses, Types of neuroses, Causes of occurrence, Methods for obtaining neuroses in the experiment, Psychotherapy

Types of higher nervous activity (Neuroses)
1. Sanguine – strong, balanced, agile
2. Choleric – strong, unbalanced, mobile
3. Phlegmatic – strong, balanced, inert
4. Melancholic – weak

Neurosis – The term “neurosis” is used to refer to functional disorders of the nervous system – violations of the higher nervous activity. In the clinical aspect, neurosis acts as an independent nosological form of higher nervous activity disorders or as a pre-painful condition (borderline state). Neurosis develops as a result of overvoltage and breakdown of the IUI under the influence of influences, the adequacy of responses to which is not provided by its functionality. The pathogenetic basis for the emergence of neuroses is made up of disturbances in nervous processes: excitation and inhibition – their strength, mobility, and balance.
Experimental reproduction of neuroses is based on a single principle: to pose an unsolvable problem to the animal

  1. Overstrain and disruption of the excitatory process – the use of superstrong unconditioned stimuli
  2. Overstrain and disruption of the inhibitory process – the development of fine and complex differentiations

 

Experimental reproduction of neuroses

1. Overstrain and disruption of the mobility of nervous processes:

  • Alterations of the signal value of conditioned stimuli
  • “Reflex collisions”

2. The “bad childhood” model
3. Violation of the diet
4. Violation of light rhythm
5. Absence of any irritants
6. Restriction of the “reflex-instinct of freedom”

Types of experimental neuroses

1. Neurosis with a predominance of the process of excitement (inadequate excitement, the aggressiveness of the animal). is characteristic of a choleric person.
2. Neurosis with a predominance of the inhibition process (depression, drowsiness). Typical for a melancholic.
3. Neurosis with pathological mobility of nervous processes. Typical for a phlegmatic person.

  • With pathological inertia (phobias).
  • With pathological lability (fussiness, physical activity)

4. Circular neurosis (alternation of the above)

Manifestations of neuroses

1. Disorders of HNA

  • Loss of conditioned reflexes
  • The impossibility of developing new

2. Development of phase states, reflecting the inadequacy of the response of the nervous system to stimuli

  • Equalizing
  • Paradoxical
  • Ultra paradoxical
  • Brake

3. Violation of vegetative functions
4. Movement disorders
5. Violations of nervous trophism
6. Disorders of sensitivity

Microstructural changes in the brain with neuroses:

1. Destruction of the membrane of the spiny apparatus of dendrites

2. Decrease in the number of ribosomes in cortical neurons
3. Degeneration of individual cells of the hippocampus
4. Local disturbance of microcirculation

The cause of neurosis: mental traumatization of the personality is such an attitude of the personality to a specific situation that makes it impossible to make a rational decision.

Conditions for the emergence of neuroses

1. Social

  • Information triad:
    • The increased amount of information that needs to be processed to make an important decision
    • Limited time
    • High level of motivation

2. Biological

  • Hereditary predisposition
  • Female
  • Puberty and menopause
  • Diseases that reduce resistance

3. Psychogenic – personality traits (individual way of thinking, behaving, and responding to influences)

The basis for the development of neuroses is the emergence of generators of pathologically enhanced excitement – a group of neurons that produce an excessive flow of impulses. GPPVs are autonomous and maintain their activity. HPUV is formed as a result of a violation of the mechanisms of inhibitory control or directly hyperactivation of neurons.

The main forms of neuroses:

1. Neurasthenia – “conflict” between the requirements for oneself and the impossibility of realizing them. It is characterized by increased excitability and rapid exhaustion of the nervous system. People who are timid, shy, inert, prone to painful reactions, even to the slightest unfavorable changes in the situation, in the form of irritability are predisposed

  • Increased irritability
  • Disturbance of attention
  • General weakness
  • Mood instability depression
  • Decreased performance
  • Disorder of autonomic and sexual functions
  • Hysteria
  • The neurosis of obsessive states.

2. Hysteria – a “conflict” between exaggerated demands on others and the inability to realize them. Disorders are characterized by imitation, but not a simulation, of disease. Conviction in the presence of disease. Persons with low endurance, rapid fatigue, tearfulness, irritability are predisposed

Manifestations of hysteria

  • Inappropriate behavior (increased suggestibility, mood instability, theatricality)
  • Convulsive seizures, paralysis, and paresis
  • Blindness, deafness, loss of smell, taste
  • Disorder of autonomic and sexual functions

3. Neurosis of obsessive states – “conflict” between desires, aspirations, and the impossibility of their realization for moral or other reasons. Persons prone to fearfulness, shyness, timid, impressionable, insecure are predisposed.

Manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder:

  • Most often it manifests itself in the form of a phobia of objects, activities, situations (carcinophobia, cardiophobia, social phobias, thoughts “climbing” into the head, etc.)
  • Vegetative disorders
  • Neuro-trophic disorders

 

Psychasthenia

1. Extreme indecision, the tendency to obsessive ideas
2. Excessive suspiciousness, focus on imaginary dangers
3. Impressiveness, vulnerability, shyness
4. Feeling of anxiety, fearfulness
5. Weakness of initiative, lack of self-confidence in the future, which seems to be hopeless, carrying failures, troubles
6. Fear of the new, the unknown
7. Differs in pedantry
8. Due to endless doubts, everything does slowly, a tendency to painful introspection, abstract reasoning
9. The read is experienced sharper and brighter than what is happening in reality
10. Feelings of the incompleteness of life

According to Pavlov I.P.
1. People of the “artistic type”, very emotionally perceiving reality – to hysteria;
2. “mental type” – to obsessive-compulsive disorder;
3. Average between them – to neurasthenia.

As a pre-disease for:
1. Ischemic heart disease
2. Arterial hypertension
3. Peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum