Pathophysiology – Introduction Subject and objects of physiopathology

Introduction of Pathophysiology (from greecpathos – illnesssufferingphysis – the nature, the logosdoctrine) – a science about ability to live of a sick organism. She  studies most the general  laws of occurrence and development of infringements in an organism at illnesses. So, a pneumonia, a liver, a stomach, skin, etc., clinically sharply differ from each other, however in a basis of their development the inflammation which current has the general  laws lays. The majority of diseases are accompanied by damages of cells and subcellular structures. These damages also have the general laws of development and are studied pathophysiologyPathophysiology is a uniting part between biological and clinical disciplines and, being based on private results of researches of separate pathological processes and illnesses of the person, deduces most the general laws. The knowledge of the general laws of occurrence and development of illnesses allows taking measures under their prevention on a global scale. Due to this it was possible to liquidate many infectious diseases by general vaccination of the population (smallpox, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, etc.).

In Introduction of Pathophysiology, The knowledge of the general laws of development of pathological processes at different levels of the organization of the person allows leading pathogenetic therapy of many diseases effectively.

The basic purpose of pathophysiology as subject matter is familiarizing students with an understanding of essence of illness and the general laws of occurrence, development, current and outcomes of pathological processes and illnesses. The knowledge of these questions forms clinical thinking at students. Therefore pathophysiology the overall aim is closely connected to clinical disciplines, them. However, methods and objects of research are various. Clinical disciplines study the concrete sick person with concrete displays of illness. Pathological physiology studies the general nonspecific and specific mechanisms of development of illnesses in general or the changed ability to live of a sick organism. At various stages of development of illness there are morphological, biochemical and functional changes which are in interrelation among themselves. Only by integrative estimations of these changes it is possible to establish the general laws of development of illness that is the primary goal pathophysiologycal as a fundamental medical and biologic science. Analyzing cause and effect attitudes, it is possible to understand mechanisms of development of illness. Only knowing causal factors and mechanisms of development, the doctor can carry out effective ethiotropic both pathogenetic preventive maintenance and therapy of illnesses. It the doctor differs from the average medical worker. Therefore teaching of a subject pathophysiologycal as medical and biologic discipline, in system of the maximum medical formation borrows one of conducting positions.

Structure of a subject matter pathophysiological – Introduction of pathophysiology (physiopathology)

In Introduction of Pathophysiology, Pathophysiology as the subject matter will consist of two parts: the general and individual pathophysiology. A problem of the general pathophysiologycal is acquaintance of students with the general concepts about illness (general nosology) and typical pathological processes. The general study about illness (general nosology) is closely connected to the general concepts about causal relationships of occurrence of illness   and mechanisms of development, current and an outcome of illness. These concepts also are closely connected to a condition of the macroorganism i.e. with its reactance, heredity and the constitution. Thus, these concepts concern to extremely important section of the general pathophysiology – the general nosology. Following rather important section of the general pathophysiology are typical pathological processes. To them concern! Damage of a cell, local frustration of blood circulation, an inflammation, a fever, typical infringements of a metabolism, an allergy, tumours, etc.

 

Typical pathological processes name those processes which are united by the following criteria:

1. They arise under influence of set of extremely different causal factors. Despite of it, they develop on the general  laws, on a uniform pathogenetic way.
2. Are characterized, as a rule, by unity and conflict of opposites: processes of damage and protective – adaptive mechanisms at different levels of an organism.
3. In an organism of advanced animals and the person proceed the same.
 Individual  pathophysiology studies typical infringements of separate bodies and systems of an organism.
 
General nosology Typical Infringements
– The general concept about illness processes. Separate
– General etiology bodies and
– The general pathogenesis systems
Organism.
 
 

Methods of research, value of experiment in pathophysiological in Introduction of physiopathology

In Introduction of Pathophysiology, Pathophysiology is an experimental science; therefore its basic method experiment on alive objects is pathophysiology experiment differs from physiological modeling of illness of the person on laboratory animals. Model of illness name reproduction of copies of separate symptoms and syndromes of corresponding disease of the person on laboratory animals. Now it is possible to reproduce on animals such pathological processes, as a traumatic shock, diabetes, an atherosclerosis, a heart attack of a myocardium, an inflammation of kidneys, an arterial hypertension, etc. Meanwhile, it is impossible to forget, that the organism of the person is much more complex even than the most highly organized animals and is under constant influence of social factors in this connection to receive in full illnesses of the person on animals it is practically impossible. It is possible to reproduce only separate pathogenetic the important parts, symptoms and syndromes of illness of the person. Some illnesses of the person to reproduce on animals it is absolutely impossible. To them concern: mental diseases, some exchange diseases, a cancer of a stomach, atopic illnesses, etc. In experiment mathematical methods of research are used physiological, electrophysiological, biophysical, biochemical, blood, morphological, immunological.

 

In Introduction of Pathophysiology, Pathophysiologycal experiment, as against clinical supervision, has a number of favorable advantages. Opportunities concern to these advantages:

1. Findings-out of causal factors of occurrence of illness;
2. Supervision since the period of pre disease and the earliest stage of illness till an outcome;
3. Researches chronic forms of illness;
4. Carrying out of experimental therapy.
All these opportunities are sharply limited in clinical conditions.
Pathophysiologycal experiment on laboratory animals can consist of three stages:
1. Studying an initial background condition of an organism;
2. Reproduction of model of illness;
3. Carrying out of experimental therapy.

In Introduction of Pathophysiology, Models of pathological processes can be reproduced on isolated bodies, cultures of cells and fabrics. Also mathematical modeling illnesses and their separate elements with the help of modern computer facilities is used. In pathophysiologycal, alongside with the specified methods, clinical research is used. Well develops clinical pathophysiology.

 

Introduction of pathophysiology (physiopathology) - EduLesson

 

ORIGIN OF PATHOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGY IN PROCESS OF
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Pathological physiology (pathphysiology, Pathophysiology, pathphysio) - edulesson
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