Disorders of Human Higher Nervous Activity – Pathology Nervous System

Disorders of human higher nervous activity (neurosis) are caused by unfavorable environmental conditions (biological and social), physical and mental stress, and is accompanied by impaired functions of various organs and systems (cardiovascular, endocrine, digestive, etc.).

Reasons for Disorders of human higher nervous activity:

1. Organic (insufficient supply of oxygen to the brain; decreased blood glucose, pathology of the endocrine glands, vitamin deficiency, trauma, high and low temperatures, inflammation, tumors, strokes, aging).
2. External (exposure to radiation, current, noise, vibration, electromagnetic field, toxic substances, strong or unusual irritants).
3. Social (structure of society, working conditions, everyday life, social environment and position, degree of freedom, the ability to meet needs, attitudes of other people, conflicts, and intense labor activity), requiring constant high emotional and mental stress.
4. Personality features (strength, poise, and mobility of nervous processes, temperament, genetic and physiological pathologies)
5. Word, suggestion, and self-hypnosis can have a pathogenic or therapeutic effect.
To eliminate Disorders of human higher nervous activity, you need rest, a change of scenery, a switch to other interests.

Neurosis is a reversible disorder of the body’s functions of mental origin, with a tendency to a protracted course. = Chronic long-term Disorders of human higher nervous activity caused by overstrain of nervous processes by the action of external stimuli inadequate in strength and duration.
In Disorders of human higher nervous activity, A psychogenic factor in all cases is conflicts (external or internal), the action of circumstances that cause psychological trauma, or prolonged overstrain of the emotional or intellectual spheres of the psyche.

Symptoms of Disturbances of human higher nervous activity: emotional distress (often for no apparent reason), indecision, communication problems, inadequate self-esteem; feelings of anxiety, fear, phobias, tantrums, panic attacks, obsessive states; uncertainty or inconsistency of the system of values, ideas about oneself, about others and life; instability of mood, irritability, despair or aggression, tearfulness, resentment, vulnerability; obsession with a traumatic situation; rapid fatigability, decreased performance, memory, attention, thinking abilities; sensitivity to loud sounds, bright light, temperature changes; sleep disorders, chronic fatigue, appetite disorders, decreased potency, dizziness, headaches and heartaches, palpitations, frequent going to the toilet, loose stools.

The concept of the sensory system, Structural and functional organization of analyzers,  Analyzer properties.

The sensory system is part of the nervous system responsible for perception. A set of nerve formations that provide reception and analysis of sensory information from any sense organ.
Pavlov called it an analyzer. Later, the concept expanded to a “sensory system”. The most famous sensory systems are vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
1. Receptor neurons capture changes in the environment and convert the energy of the stimulus into nerve impulses;
2. Afferent pathways (nerve fibers) transmit these impulses to the central nervous system;
3. The central section – the brain (sensory areas of the cortex) processes nerve impulses into images and words:
-Primary perceiving centers – extract information from impulses (analysis);
– Secondary perceiving centers – combine the information received (synthesis) and form judgments (sensations).
4. Efferent (executive) pathways transmit impulses from the cortex to receptors and regulate their activity.

Visual analyzer.

The visual analyzer is a set of nerve formations that provide the perception of the size, shape, color of objects, and their relative position.
1) The eye is an organ of vision that perceives light stimuli. The peripheral part of the analyzer – photoreceptors (rods and cones).
2) The optic nerve is the conduction section of the analyzer.
3) The visual centers are located in the occipital lobe of the cortex – the central section.

Auditory analyzer.

An auditory analyzer is a set of structures that provide the perception of sound information, its transformation into nerve impulses, and transmission and processing in the central nervous system.
1) peripheral section – auditory receptors in the inner ear;
2) conduction department – the auditory nerve;
3) the central section – the auditory zone of the temporal lobe of the cortex (several auditory centers).

Disorders of human higher nervous activity Disorders of human higher nervous activity Disorders of human higher nervous activity Diseases of human higher nervous activity