Basic Endocrinological Syndromes – Endocrine System Pathology

The main symptoms, syndromes, and research methods in diseases of the endocrine system or Basic Endocrinological Syndromes

Test questions:

  1. Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system
  2. The main syndromes in diseases of the endocrine system
  3. Diagnosis of diseases of the endocrine system: data from anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory, and instrumental methods.

 

The endocrine system

The endocrine system (endocrine glands) together with the nervous system regulates metabolism and maintains the balance of the internal environment of the body (homeostasis). The endocrine system is a complex multifunctional complex, all elements of which are closely related. Dysfunction of one endocrine gland causes changes in others.

Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the science of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands. The endocrine glands produce hormones that are released directly into the blood. Hormones have high biological activity and have a remote effect on various organs and systems. They affect all types of metabolism in the body, the function of the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, and other systems.

The endocrine glands include:

  • thyroid gland;
  • parathyroid glands;
  • pituitary gland (a lower appendage of the brain, located in the Turkish saddle of the skull, the anterior lobe is the adenohypophysis, the posterior lobe is the neurohypophysis);
  • the pineal gland (pineal gland, the superior appendage of the brain);
  • sex glands – ovaries in women, testes in men;
  • adrenal glands (consist of the cortex and medulla, glucocorticosteroids, and aldosterone are produced in the cortex, adrenaline, and norepinephrine in the brain).
  • Also, there are hormone-producing cells in the kidneys, liver, intestines, and brain.
  • The pancreas belongs to the glands of mixed secretion (i.e., both external and internal).

Regulation of the endocrine system is carried out by the cerebral cortex and the interaction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. For example, the thyroid gland, under the influence of the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), synthesizes triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in turn, the pituitary gland is under the control of the hypothalamus, which secretes tropic hormones or releasing factors. Each endocrine gland has its own releasing factor. Dysfunction of the endocrine gland can be primary (pathology in the gland itself) and secondary (lack of tropic hormones of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus).

Basic Endocrinological Syndromes In Pathology of the Endocrine System

The hyperthyroid syndrome is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones in the body. It is observed with diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), etc. The main symptoms: 1) weight loss, 2) muscle weakness, 3) increased nervous irritability, irritability, tearfulness; 4) tachycardia, 5) feeling of heat, 6) sweating, 7) diarrhea.
The hypothyroid syndrome is caused by a lack of thyroid hormones in the body. It is observed with a lack of iodine in food, with malformations of the thyroid gland, endemic goiter, thyroid cancer, autoimmune thyroiditis, etc. The main symptoms: 1) weight gain, 2) lethargy and drowsiness, 3) increased fatigue, apathy, lethargy; 4) decreased memory, the concentration of attention; 5) chilliness, 6) constipation, 7) speech delay, 8) bradycardia.

Hyperparathyroid syndrome is caused by increased production of parathyroid hormone by hyperplastic or tumor-like parathyroid glands and an increase in serum calcium. The main symptoms are 1) bone pain, 2) muscle weakness in the limbs, 3) the development of urolithiasis.
Hypoparathyroid syndrome is caused by parathyroid hormone deficiency and reduced serum calcium. It occurs when the parathyroid glands are removed, after treatment with radioactive iodine, with tumors of the parathyroid glands, lack of vitamin D (rickets). The main symptoms: 1) convulsive muscle contractions – tetany (upper limbs – the hand of an obstetrician, lower limbs – horse foot, painful cramps of the facial muscles), 2) pathological bone fractures, 3) vegetative manifestations (sweating).

Hyperglycemic syndrome is caused by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. It occurs in diabetes mellitus, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, chronic pancreatitis, diffuse toxic goiter, and pancreatic tumors. The main symptoms are: 1) muscle weakness, 2) thirst, 3) polyuria, 4) increased appetite, 5) damage to the peripheral nervous system (pain in the legs, numbness of the fingertips, cramps in the calf muscles).
Hypersomatotropic syndrome develops with excessive production of a somatotropic hormone (growth hormone) due to adenohypophysis tumor, traumatic brain injury. It manifests itself in children and adolescents by increased growth of the bone skeleton, soft tissues, internal organs – gigantism, in adults – acromegaly (disproportionate growth of the bones of the facial skeleton, hands, feet).
Hyposomatotropic syndrome develops as a result of a decrease or cessation of the production of growth hormone, manifests itself as dwarfism (short stature).

Hypercorticoid syndrome is caused by hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex (excess glucocorticosteroids) caused by damage to the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, or adrenal cortex tumor. It occurs with the disease or Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome. The main symptoms are: 1) fat deposition on the face (moon face), on the abdomen; 2) a decrease in sexual activity and an increase in the mammary glands in men; 3) termination of the menstrual cycle, the development of infertility, male-pattern hair growth (hirsutism) in women; 4) arterial hypertension.
Hypocorticoid syndrome is caused by an insufficient amount of adrenal cortex hormones (glucocorticosteroids). Occurs in Addison’s disease. Main symptoms: 1) progressive muscle weakness, weakness; 2) slowing down of speech, loss of voice; 3) decrease in body weight, 4) hyperpigmentation of the skin, 5) decrease in blood pressure, 6) dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (constipation, diarrhea), 7) decreased memory and attention.

Obesity is a syndrome caused by metabolic disorders in the body and manifested by excessive deposition of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous tissue and all physiological fat depots, as well as fatty infiltration of internal organs. The main symptoms: 1) overweight, 2) drowsiness, lethargy, apathy; 3) sweating, 4) increased blood pressure, 5) shortness of breath at rest and when walking.
Exhaustion (cachexia) is a syndrome that occurs when there is insufficient intake of nutrients in the body or a violation of their assimilation. It happens with diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, etc.

Basic endocrinological syndromes are caused due to dysfunction of the Endocrine gland-like – Hyper function of the thyroid gland causes diseases like Hyperthyroidism. Some other Basic endocrinological syndromes are here i.e.

  • Acromegaly.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison’s Disease.
  • Cushing’s Syndrome.
  • Cystic Fibrosis link.
  • Graves’ Disease.
  • Hashimoto’s Disease.
  • Type 1 Diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Thyroid Cancer.
  • Addison’s Disease.