Tumors of Nervous system: Macro preparation and Micro preparation

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system (Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, Meningioma)

Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Tumors of the Nervous system

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Description of the micro preparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Astrocytoma (Tumors of Nervous system)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Astrocytoma
Astrocytoma

Description of the macro preparation:

Neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Benign neuroectodermal tumors are astrocytoma (glioma), oligodendroglioma. Astrocytoma is a macroglial benign tumor from astrocytes. There are the following histological forms of astrocytomas: fibrillary, protoplasmatic, mast cell (giant cell) astrocytoma, and mixed.

Macroscopically the formation of intracerebral foci differing in density and pallor is possible; or they may have soft consistency, gray-pink colour, gelati nous surface of the cut; the formation of cysts is possible. In Pliocytic/cystic astrocytoma they are characterized by the formation of a large cavity to diameter which compressing the cerebellum tissue leads to its atrophy. cystic astrocytoma presented with cavitary lesion, the tissue of the cerebellum is atrophied around it. These are usually well-circumscribed & soft. It can be can be cystic with mural nodule. In Optic gliomas may present as fusiform mass. And it can occur calcium deposits and hemosiderin. In Anaplastic astrocytoma is characterized that the margins of the tumor is indistinct with the foci of multiple diapedet ic and confluent hemorrhages and hemosiderosis.

Description of the micro preparation:

Microscopic changes in neuroectodermal tumors are defined with histological form of astrocytoma.

  1. Fibrilar astrotsytomas consist of stellate or elongated cells that are rich in glial fibers arranged in bundles and astrocytes, blood vessels are sanguine; there are foci of perivascular hemorrhage; the formation cysts is marked.
  2. Proto-plasmatic astrocytoma consists of small cells with eosinophil cyto plasm and numerous dendrites. Mast cell (giant cell) astrocytoma is represented by large homogeneous multidendritic cells.
  3. pilocytic astrocytoma (spongioblastoma) which contains parallel and interlacing bundles of bipolar cells giving the impression of hair strands, the formation of cysts occurs often; subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is in the form of small scleroid nodules (tuber oussclerosis) in the wall of the lateral ventricles with polymorphism of cells, in cluding large, giant cells, spindle or pyramidal cells, the formation of perivascular pseudorosette is characteristic. It can be Fibrillar, Microcystic/loose, Having Hair-like fibres, presenting of Eosinophilic granular bodies.

Macro and Micro Preparations of Glioblastoma (Tumors of Nervous system

Macro and Micro Preparations of Glioblastoma
Glioblastoma

Description of the macro preparation:

Macroscopically the tumor is characteristic; the combination of yellow and gray areas of necrosis is in the center; gray and red vitalized tis sue at the periphery; brown and red foci of old and fresh hemorrhages. In the white matter of the brain, a large tumor (arrows) with indistinct boundaries (invasive growth), of a variegated appearance due to multiple hemorrhages, foci of brown hemosiderosis, yellowish necrosis, small cysts. Marked edema of the brain (convolutions are flattened, grooves are smoothed). In the white thing of the brain, a tumor focus was identified, without clear boundaries, of a variegated appearance: gray, with foci of yellow and dark red color.

Description of the micro preparation:

Microscopically a tumor is presented chaotically arranged polymorph atypical cells with an abundance of pathologic mitosis, necrosis, the formation of perivascular rosettes, vascular proliferation with the formation of choroid glomi. The tumor is represented by polymorphic cells, including giant ones, with hyperchromic ugly nuclei (glioblastoma multiforme), with a large number of pathological mitoses. Pseudo-palisade structures are visible around the foci of necrosis. The tumor grows diffusely in the thing of the brain, with pronounced cellular atypism. It is built from polymorphic cells with polyganic hyperchromic nuclei. There are giant cells, the presence of numerous pathogens, extensive foci of necrosis and hemorrhage is characteristic.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Meningioma (Tumors of Nervous system)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Meningioma
Meningioma

Description of the macro preparation:

Macroscopically they are in the form of single or multiple dense nodular formations. The tumor (arrows) has the form of a rounded node, with clear boundaries (easily exfoliated from the brain tissue), of a dense consistency, emanating from the pia mater. On the cut, the tumor tissue is gray or yellowish-white in color, layered, may have small cysts. Under the pressure of the tumor, focal atrophy develops, cerebral edema.

Description of the micro preparation:

Microscopically neurilemmoma (schwannoma) is characterized by the formation of spindle with cells rod-shaped nuclei. The cells and fibers form bundles or “palisade” structures, alternating parallel nuclei “Verocay bodies”

Microscopically Meningioma usually represents a well-delimited node of a round or ovoid shape, often welded to the inner surface of the dura mater. There are also flat knots. Spinal Meningioma is often oblong, with an extradural arrangement it can cover the dural sac with a sleeve. Meningioma`s size varies in diameter from a few millimeters to 15 cm and more. Meningioma’s consistency is rather dense, especially with an abundance of fibrous tissue. In most cases, the tumor is surrounded by a dense capsule. On a cut, Meningioma’s tissue is gray or meat-red, with abundant content of the so-called. xanthoma cells take ocher color. The presence of cysts in Meningioma is not typical.