Tumor – properties, structural features, Morphogenesis and histogenesis

Topic Titles: “Tumor, properties, structural features of tumor tissue” (SIWT)

Morphogenesis and histogenesis of tumor – Histogenetic classification” (PL)

About Tumor

Benign tumors

Malignant tumors

Type of growth depending on the degree of differentiation

Expansive

Infiltrative

Types of atypism, briefly explain their essence

Tissue:- tissue atypism is characterized by impaired organotypic and histotypic differentiation and the ratio of parenchyma and stroma of tumor tissue, morphological properties of cells maintain and its histogenesis may be determined.

Tissue and cellular: – cellular atypism are impaired cytotypic differentiation and the appearance of atypical cells with their polymorphism. Sometimes the differentiation of tumor tissue is significantly disturbed, making it difficult to determine their histogenesis.

Relapses, briefly explain their nature

No (usually) because in the starting phase or benign tumor don`t spread or very slow growth.

Yes (usually) because in this type of tumor, cells invade the nearby tissue and rapidly grow and spread.

Metastases, briefly explain their essence

Is not damaged (usually) because, from the primary site of the organ, they can`t spread

Is damaged and leads to the development of cachexia and they spread from the primary site of origin to another tissue and different areas of the body

General effect on the body, explain its mechanism

It affects only body function so there is no general effect.

In this tumor cells are spread by the blood and lymph flow and the cell loses their adhesion. So it will show the general effect.

Local effect on the body, explain its mechanism

Due to compression of tumor cell.

Due to spread, cells or tissues will destroy.


Answer on questions of the Clinical case of Tumor Patients – 

A 10-year-old boy with a femoral fracture was delivered to the trauma unit. In the area of ​​the fracture, the bone tissue was diffusely replaced by bleeding red-gray tumor tissue. A histological examination revealed that the tumor was built from atypical vascular formations, the endothelium of which is sharply hyperchromic, with many mitoses.

1) Diagnose the tumor process.

Angiosarcoma:- Malignant vascular tumor. Sarcoma is a type of cancer that begins in tissues such as bones or muscles. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are the main types of sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcoma can develop in soft tissues such as fat, muscles, nerves, fibrous tissues, blood vessels, or deep skin tissues. They can be found in any part of the body.

2) Name the group of tumors according to the international classification.

  • Lymphoma:- Lymphoma is cancer that starts in cells fighting an infection of the immune system, called lymphocytes. These cells occur in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. When you have lymphoma, the lymphocytes are transformed and out of control.
  • Sarcoma:- These tumors are most common in bones, muscles, tendons, cartilage, nerves, fat, and blood vessels of your hands and feet, but they can also occur in other areas of your body.
  • Carcinoma: – Carcinoma is a cancer that starts in a tissue that makes up the internal or external surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells arising in the endodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis.
  • Melanoma:- Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells known as melocytes.
  • Leukemia: – Leukemia is a cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, which includes the bone marrow and lymphatic system.

3) Determine the type of tumor growth

  • infiltration Type

4) Specify the source of tumor development

  • cells that lose their adhesion after the fracture.

5) Indicate the predominant pathway for metastasis of such tumors

  • blood flow or lymphatic flow are easy to metastasize to distant sites, especially the liver and lungs.