Nervous system infections: Macro preparation and Micro preparation

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Nervous system infections (meningococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, encephalitis, neurosyphilis, poliomyelitis, rabies, toxoplasmosis)

Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Nervous system infections

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Description of the micro preparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Purulent meningitis (Nervous system infections)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Purulent meningitis
Purulent meningitis

Description of the macro preparation:

In Macro-preparation, the brain is seen from the side of its upper – lateral surfaces. Under the pia mater, an accumulation of exudate of white-yellow color, the consistency of thick sour cream, is determined. This is a purulent exudate. The exudate lies on the surface of the convolutions, enters the grooves, smoothing the relief of the surface of the brain. Inflammation of the pia mater is meningitis.

Primarily purulent meningitis can occur with meningococcal infection, and secondarily, it can complicate infectious diseases with generalization of the infection (with sepsis).

The pia mater is thickened, dull, saturated with purulent exudate of a greenish-yellow color. Changes are presented on the basal surface of the brain and on the convex surface of the anterior hemispheres in the form of a “cap” or “cap”

Brain sinuses are flattened, creamy yellowish-white pus is located in the furrows. The blood vessels of the pia mater are congested.

 

Description of the micro preparation:

Micro-preparation – The pia mater is sharply thickened, diffusely infiltrated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Their vessels are dilated, full-blooded. The subarachnoid space is saturated with leukocyte exudate, permeated with fibrin threads. With the transition of the process to the brain tissue, purulent meningoencephalitis develops, with the involvement of the ventricles of the brain – purulent ependymatitis.

The pia mater is buried in the groove. It is sharply infiltrated with leukocytes, thickened, its vessels are sharply full-blooded, dilated. In the substance of the brain adjacent to the meninges, the proliferation of cellular elements in the vessel wall is visible. Marked perivascular and pericellular edema.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Tuberculous meningitis (Nervous system infections)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Tuberculous meningitis
Tuberculous meningitis

Description of the macro preparation:

Macro Preparation – the pia mater of the brain is thickened, with congested vessels, yellowish in color, with scattered whitish tubercles present.

Description of the micro preparation:

Micro-preparation – The process is localized in the membranes of the base of the brain, therefore it is called basilar meningitis, it often proceeds as an exudative inflammation. Tuberculous tubercles are found in the thickened pia mater with the phenomenon of edema and pronounced lympho-leukocytic infiltration. In the center, necrosis with chromatin grains and debris of cell nuclei is visible. Multinucleated giant cells in the tubercles may be absent.