Pituitary Gland Disorders – Macro preparation and Micro preparation

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system or Pituitary Gland Disorders (Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, Pituitaryadenoma)

Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Pituitary Gland Disorders

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Descriptionofthemicropreparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pheochromocytoma (Pituitary Gland Disorders)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma

Description of the macro-preparation of Pheochromocytoma:

  1. the hormone-active tumor that occurs in the adrenal medulla or in the sympathetic ganglia.
  2. The soft surface of tumor of the adrenal gland, grossly, spherical shape
  3. Grey and brownish color of adrenal gland tumor, hemorrhagic area, calcifications, cystic changes and necrosis.
  4. secreting catecholamines in an increased amount
  5. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA is a hormone-active tumor that occurs in the adrenal medulla or in the sympathetic ganglia, secreting catecholamines in an increased amount. The tumor can be benign or malignant.

 

Description of the Micro-preparation of Pheochromocytoma:

  1. A pheochromocytomais a tumor of the adrenal medulla of chromaffin cells.
  2. consisting of chromaffin cells, solid column arrangements, trabeculae or also clumps. The tumor cells having large polyhedral, pleomorphic with abundant granular amphophilic or basophilic cytoplasm.
  3. Staining with NSE (neuron-specific enolase) which is a neuroendocrine substances and also by chromogranin which give positive result.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pituitary adenoma (Pituitary Gland Disorders)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pituitary adenoma
Pituitary adenoma

Description of the macro-preparation of Pituitaryadenoma:

  1. Pituitary adenoma is the most common cause of hyperpituitarism in pituitary gland.
  2. The growth pattern can be diffuse, trabecular (as in this case), pseudo-acinar or pseudo-papillary.
  3. small to medium-sized containing moderate to abundant amounts of finely granular cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei showing finely-stippled chromatin and indistinct to small nucleoli. The cytoplasm can be eosinophilic, basophilic, acidophilic, or chromophobe recapitulating normal pituitary cell types.
  4. This tumor is arranged in pseudo-acinar formations with a central lumen-like space (arrowhead). Tumor necrosis is generally not present unless infarction develops because of rapid growth.
  5. Pituitary adenoma is the most common cause of hyperpituitarism that usually results in inappropriate secretion of one hormone.

 

Description of the micro-preparation of Pituitaryadenoma:

  1. pituitary gland representing adenohypophysis on the right and neurohypophysis on the left.
  2. monomorphic expansion of usually one cell type with lack of reticulin network among neoplastic cells.
  3. small to medium-sized containing moderate to abundant amounts of finely granular cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei showing finely-stippled chromatin and indistinct to small nucleoli. The cytoplasm can be eosinophilic, basophilic, acidophilic, or chromophobe recapitulating normal pituitary cell types.
  4. The adenoma is usually hormone-producing but non-functional adenomas also occur. The most common hormone produced is prolactin followed by growth hormone, FSG/LH and thyroid hormone.