Macro and Micro preparation of Diffuse toxic and Colloidal goiter

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Thyroid disease (goiter) i.e. Diffuse toxic goiter, Hashimoto’s goiter and Colloidal goiter

 Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Thyroid disease (goiter)

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Description of the micro preparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion
 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Diffuse toxic goiter

Macro and Micro Preparations of Diffuse toxic goiter
Diffuse toxic goiter

 

Description of the Macro Preparation of Diffuse toxic goiter:

  1. the isthmus of the gland is felt
  2. The formation of cysts as a result of degenerative processes, in the diffuse-nodular goiter, “cold” nodes – Nodular colloid goiter
  3. enlarged size of the gland is visible, its consistency is dense, the surface is knotty
  4. nodes are represented by cells of different sizes, filled with brown-yellow colloidal contents
  5. Nodular goiter; Diffuse goiter; Mixed
  6. prevalence of endemic goiter among the population due to the different saturation of soil, water and food with iodine. Iodine deficiency is accompanied by an imbalance of many vital chemical elements, in particular, a reduced content of manganese, copper, cobalt and molybdenum, which aggravates the manifestations of iodine endemic. the prevalence of goiter and hypothyroidism is combined with an increase in the frequency of detection of many chronic diseases: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, gastritis, duodenitis, obesity, dental disease, etc.
  7. Endemic goiter is the most common manifestation of iodine deficiency, since iodine is an important component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyrosine. With insufficient intake of iodine in the body, a compensatory increase in the mass of the thyroid gland occurs – a goiter is formed. Uncorrected iodine deficiency initiates further morphological disorders of the thyroid tissue with the development of severe thyroid diseases: thyroiditis, nodular goiter, diffuse toxic goiter, thyroid cancer.

 

Description of the Micro Preparation of Diffuse toxic goiter:

  1. high hyperplastic epithelium, solid tubular (parenchymal goiter) or hypoplastic structure).
  2. Follicles of irregular shape, Colloid pink, vacuolated. In the stroma there is a lymph-macrophage reaction.
  3. accompanied by hypothyroidism.
  4. In terms of their general population prevalence, they rank first among other human autoimmune pathologies. Even more often there are benign hyperplastic processes of the thyroid gland, which include various forms of colloidal proliferating goiter. Most often, the formation of goiter is facilitated by various goitrogenic factors, the most common of which is a deficiency in iodine intake into the body and thyroid gland. Here, a unique feature of thyroid pathology in general should be noted: the spectrum, prevalence and prognosis of most thyroid diseases will largely depend on the region with which iodine consumption (insufficient, normal, excessive) the patient lives.
  5. Goiteris an enlargement of the gland, which is based on hyperplasia. Associated with a lack of iodine in food. Iodine deficiency provides a decrease in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, an increase in the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland (TSH) and the development of hyperplasia. Significant amounts of colloid accumulate inside the stretched follicles, which leads to epithelial atrophy. Insufficient function of the follicular epithelium is compensated by an increase in the mass of the gland.

 

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Hashimoto’s goiter

Macro and Micro Preparations of Hashimoto’s goiter
Hashimoto’s goiter

Description of the macro preparation of Hashimoto’s goiter:

  1. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland
  2. Total or subtotal diffuse-focal lymphocytic infiltration of the gland The epithelium is flattened, the colloid is thick
  3. hypertrophy and hyperplasia of follicles with colloid resorption – the initial stage (hypertrophic variant – “hashitoxicosis”);
  4. 90% of cases of acquired hypothyroidism begins with autoimmune Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
  5. hypertrophy of TSH-producing chromophobic cells of the pituitary gland – thyroidectomy cells is characteristic

 

Description of the Micro preparation of Hashimoto’s goiter:

  1. epidermis and mucous cells
  2. richly eosinophilic, in places basophilic in color with cracking stripes and dust-like calcification
  3. a violation of the transport and reception of thyroid hormones. A decrease in the volume of functioning thyroid tissue and / or defects in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
  4. Unlike Riedel’s thyroiditis, sclerosis of the gland does not spread to the surrounding tissues.

 

 

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Colloidal goiter

Macro and Micro Preparations of Colloidal goiter
Colloidal goiter

 

Description of the macro preparation of Colloidal goiter:

  1. one-sided and two-sided in Thyroid Gland
  2. not true mucus that accumulates in the glandular structures, but mucus-like substances (pseudomucins). These substances can thicken and take on the character of a colloid.
  3. Significant amounts of colloid accumulate inside the stretched follicles, which leads to epithelial atrophy.
  4. The colloid in the follicles is scanty, liquid, vacuolated. In the stroma, accumulations of lymphoid elements are visible.
  5. The outcome of the process is the reverse development or death of the cell, followed by sclerosis and atrophy.

 

Description of the Micro preparation of Colloidal goiter:

  1. Insufficient function of the follicular epithelium is compensated by an increase in the mass of the gland
  2. the gland consists of rounded follicles, many of them are cystically stretched, filled with an oxyphilic thick colloid, which turns crimson in the PIC reaction. The epithelium in follicles and cysts is flattened.
  3. The outcome of the process is the reverse development or death of the cell, followed by sclerosis and atrophy.
  4. macrofollicular, microfollicular, mixed