Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Macro and Micro preparation

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema). Interstitial lung disease

Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Description of the micro preparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Chronic bronchitis (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis


Description of the macro preparation:

  1. Mainly inlining of the bronchial tubes which are mainly used for the flow of air. And also, Bronchioles, Alveoli, and Air sacs.
  2. Mucus hypertrophy cause hyper-secretion of mucus and with Subsequent Inflammatory cells infiltration causes chronic inflammation in bronchioles and Brochi.
  3. Lumen – Narrow, Mucus Plus is present in airway, bronchial wall become thicked, Alveoli Adjacent are damaged.
  4. Alveoli adjacent and Bronchial Damaged. Mucus present in excess. Alveoli getting enlarged and no. Of alveoli is reduced
  5. The prevalence of the process is approx 2.6% and in smokers, it increased to 20.1 – 56.9% with a median value of 40%
  6. It is characterized by mucus hypertrophy chronic inflammation in the bronchioles. Production of cough with sputum for 3 months

Description of the micro preparation:

  1. in this chronic bronchitis, the lining of the bronchial tube will be getting irritated and inflamed. And also central airways are getting inflammation in these Diseases.
  2. Irritated airways, Excess mucus production, no of goblet cells and mucus-secreting glands increased, ciliary junction reduced, alveoli adjacent become damaged.
  3. in this mucus will be increased and making mucus plugs, and I will cause alter the function of alveolar macrophage and alveoli and lungs getting infected.
  4. This disease is also known as blue bloater due to less oxygen in the Arteries because of excessive mucus and narrow airways. In this production of cough and sputum will production for 3 months due to secretion of mucus in the large amount.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pulmonary emphysema(Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Pulmonary emphysema
Pulmonary emphysema

Description of the macro preparation:

  1. Distal to Terminal bronchioles, having two types – 1) Centrilobular – in the upper lobe of the lung. 2) Panlobular – in the lower lobe of the lung (Especially in Basal Segment)
  2. Acinus and respiratory bronchiole to Alveoli getting expended.
  3. Walls of alveoli getting destroyed with the absence of fibrosis. The alveolar surface area is destroyed and causes dead spaces.
  4. Dead space is present in the cavity, Alveoli surfaced damaged and causes dead space. Enlargement of air spaces.
  5. The prevalence of emphysema is 0.2 – 37%. Spread by droplets and contact with an infected person. Also can cause by bacteria, foreign microorganisms.
  6. Pulmonary emphysema is an irreversible enlargement of air sacs that is distal to terminal bronchioles with the destruction of alveoli walls without evidence or presence of fibrosis.

Description of the micro preparation:

  1. in alveoli, destroying the surface area of alveolar which is mainly decrease in capillaries and then it causes dead space.
  2. Acinus Expanded, dead spaces due to destroying the surface area of alveoli.
  3. it leads to hypoxia, which causes disturbance in CO2 elimination and gets increases tension of CO2 in Arterial blood which will cause respiratory acidosis and increase forcing the Right Ventricle.
  4. this will cause severe dyspnea, scant sputum, less frequent infection, cough after dyspnea. In emphysema, Alveoli is unable to exchange the gases from the lung to blood. So that’s why it will cause difficulty in breathing which is known as dyspnea.

Macro and Micro Preparations of Bronchoectasis with pneumosclerosis (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Bronchoectasis with pneumosclerosis
Bronchiectasis with pneumosclerosis


Description of the macro preparation:

  1. The upper part of the lungs, the Proximal and central part of ACINUS is Expanded. Distal Acinus and Alveoli are unchanged.
  2. Fibrosis is known as cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
  3. Bronchial tubes are permanently damaged, widened, and thickened.
  4. Completed damaged airways. Cystic fibrosis occurs also. The upper lobe of the lungs is damaged, So airflow will be affected.
  5. Due to any damage, or foreign/trigger agents.
  6. Due to the triggering agent, it destroys the bronchial wall, which leads to bronchial dilation and enlargement of bronchial arteries, causes airway obstruction.

Description of the micro preparation:

  1. Cartilage, Muscles, and elastic tissue of Bronchial walls. The parenchyma of Lungs.
  2. fibrous tissue of the lungs (Bronchial wall), thick and purulent material collected in dilated bronchi due to excess mucus production. Enlargement of bronchial arteries.
  3. any trigger/etiological agent or any external damage to the lungs can lead to this disease.
  4. In this condition, the vascularity of the bronchial wall will increase, and the bronchial wall will replace with fibrous tissue.