Cerebrovascular diseases: Macro preparation and Micro preparation

Macro preparation and Micro preparation of Cerebrovascular diseases – Brain hemorrhage, Ischemic cerebral infarction, Intracranial hematoma

Describe the following macro and micro preparations of Cerebrovascular diseases

  • Description of the macro preparation:
    1. Which body or part thereof is represented
    2. Surface condition
    3. Sectional view
    4. The condition of the cavities
    5. The prevalence of the process
    6. Conclusion
  • Descriptionofthemicropreparation
    1. Which organ tissue is represented
    2. Structural changes
    3. The prevalence of the process
    4. Conclusion

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Brain hemorrhage (Cerebrovascular diseases)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Brain hemorrhage
Brain hemorrhage

Description of the macro preparation:

  1. Macrodrug is presented in the form of a brain.
  2. The size of the brain is enlarged, the brain is swollen.
  3. The convolutions are flattened, the grooves are smoothed, the brain is swollen.
  4. The substance of the brain is full-blooded, juicy. In this place, the brain tissue is destroyed and a cavity is formed filled with blood clots and softened brain tissue.
  5. Hemorrhagic stroke.
  6. The sizes of hemorrhages are different, massive bursts into the ventricles of the brain always end in death. If a person has survived a stroke, then a cyst with rusty walls and brown contents is formed, and blood clots and detritus dissolve.
  7. hematoma of the brain. The lateral ventricles are dilated. A cavity filled with blood clots forms in the brain tissue. The cavity connects to the lateral ventricles of the brain, which are also filled with blood.

Description of the micro preparation

  1. The membranes of the brain, in subarachnoid space. The surrounding brain tissue is edematous. There is a lesion represented by an accumulation of blood. Full-blooded, edematous area of ​​the subarachnoid space, with a focus of hemorrhage in the pia mater of the brain. In the perivascular zone there are accumulations of hemosiderophages
  2. vascular hyalinosis is revealed. Hyalinized arterioles look like rings with thickened walls of a uniform appearance, their lumen is narrowed.
  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage – foci of perivascular (often diapedetic) hemorrhages are visible. In the focus of large hemorrhage, the brain tissue is destroyed, structureless, replaced by blood elements, primarily erythrocytes, partially lysed. Around the foci of hemorrhage – perivascular and pericellular edema, dystrophic changes in neurons, accumulation of sideroblasts and siderophages, proliferation of glial cells.
  4. The main cause of death is progressive edema and dislocation of the brain, the second most frequent cause is the recurrence of hemorrhage. About two thirds of patients with hemorrhagic stroke remain disabled. The main factors determining the course and outcome of the disease are the volume of the hematoma, its localization in the brain stem, the breakthrough of blood into the ventricles, disorders of the cardiovascular system preceding hemorrhagic stroke, as well as the elderly age of the patient.
  5. cerebral hemorrhage. The cavity is filled with blood, the walls are also saturated with blood. Swelling of the tissue. In the walls, the tissue undergoes necrosis. Intact tissue with symptoms of edema and hyalinosis of arterioles.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Ischemic cerebral infarction (Cerebrovascular diseases)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Ischemic cerebral infarction
Ischemic cerebral infarction

Description of the macro preparation:

Ischemic cerebral infarction. Large foci of gray softening (colliquation necrosis) of the brain tissue, mushy consistency, grayish-white color, irregular shape, in places with signs of resorption and minor hemorrhages in the parietal and temporal lobes, subcortical nuclei of the right hemisphere. Marked edema of the brain: convolutions are smoothed, grooves are flattened.

Description of the micro preparation

normal and necrotic brain tissue.

 

Macro and Micro Preparations of Intracranial hematoma (Cerebrovascular diseases)

Macro and Micro Preparations of Intracranial hematoma
Intracranial hematoma

Description of the macro preparation:

Macroscopic examination of the dura mater reveals point and banded hemorrhages; from the outer surface, the shell is dull, bluish. A thin layer of fibrin is found under the dura mater, fused with a thick layer of granulation tissue, which is in direct contact with the dark liquor-like hematoma. The internal capsule of the hematoma is not detected during this period. The inner membrane begins to form from 13 to 17 days after the hemorrhage, and within 18 to 26 days, the hematoma is completely surrounded by thick outer and thin inner layers (membrane).

Description of the micro preparation

Microscopic examination reveals the processes of blood resorption with the appearance of cellular infiltrates. As a result of former intradural hemorrhages, small pigmented scars are found in the thickness of the dura mater.

In true petechial hemorrhages, the vascular walls are usually not microscopically changed, perivascular hemorrhage occurs from dilated interendothelial fissures.