Nephrology Mnemonics of Pathology – Renal System Mnemonics

Nephrology Mnemonics of Hypokalaemia: clinical features TIMID CHIMP:
Increases paralytic ileus (aggravates)
Muscle weakness
Increases possibility of hepatic encephalopathy
Digoxin toxicity
Cardiac arrythmias
Increases P-R interval, T wave and prominent U wave
Muscle cramps


Nephrology Mnemonics of Nephritic syndrome: glomerular diseases commonly presenting as
nephritic syndrome
IgA nephropathy
· Alternatively: PIG ARMS to include Goodpasture’s [one cause of
RPGN], Membranoproliferative [only sometimes included in the classic
nephritic list].


Nephrology Mnemonics of Hematuria: urethral causes NUTS:


Nephrology Mnemonics of Diseases and conditions
Detection of acute renal failure (ARF)
Mnemonic: ACUte
A Acute presentation over hours or days
C Creatinine rises
U Urea rises (±oliguria <400 ml/24 h)


Nephrology Mnemonics of Causes acute renal failure (ARF)
Mnemonic: ACUte
A ATN/Acute GN
C Circulatory dysfunction (i.e. shock – hypovolaemia, sepsis, cardiogenic)
U Urinary outflow obstruction

Nephrology Mnemonics of Clinical presentation of chronic renal failure
Mnemonic: RESIN & 8 Pʼs
R Retinopathy
E Excoriations (scratch marks)
S Skin is yellow
Increased blood pressure
N Nails are brown
P Pallor
P Purpura and bruises
Pericarditis and cardiomegaly
P Pleural effusions
P Pulmonary oedema
P Peripheral oedema
P Proximal myopathy
Peripheral neuropathy


Nephrology Mnemonics of Complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Mnemonic: MARIO
M Male patients
Abnormal renal tract
R Renal function is impaired

I Impaired host defences
O Organism that is virulent


Risk factors for UTIs
Mnemonic: UTIs
U Urinary tract obstruction or malformation
The menopause
I Intercourse (sexual)/Instrumentation/Immunosuppression
S female Sex/Stones


Indications for
Mnemonic: AEIOU
A Acid–base problems (severe acidosis or alkalosis)
Electrolyte problems (hyperkalaemia)
I Intoxications
O Overload, fluid
Uraemic symptoms
Mnemonic: SHARPE
Severity of condition increases
H Hyperkalaemia persistent (K+ >7 mmol/l)
Acidosis is metabolic and worsening (pH <7.2 or base excess <–10)
Refractory pulmonary oedema
Pericarditis (uraemic)
E Encephalopathy (uraemic)


Nephrology Mnemonics of Complications of dialysis
Mnemonic: CHAIR
Cardiovascular disease
R Renal bone disease


Urinary tract malignancies
Features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
Mnemonic: RCC
R Renal tubule (proximal) epithelium is involved
Renal Cancers are 90% RCC
Clinical features include haematuria, loin pain, abdominal mass, anorexia,
malaise and weight loss


Nephrology Mnemonics of Renal failure (chronic): consequences ABCDEFG:
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-von Recklinghausen
D vitamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
Feverous infections
-due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups

Nephrology Mnemonics of Nephrotic syndrome: hallmark findings “Protein LEAC“:
Lipid up
Albumin down
Cholesterol up
· In nephrotic, the proteins leakout.


Nephrology Mnemonics of APKD: signs, complications, accelerators 11 B’s:
· Signs:
Bloody urine
Bilateral pain [vs. stones, which are usually unilateral pain] Blood pressure up
Bigger kidneys
Bumps palpable
· Complications:
Berry aneurysm
Biliary cysts
Bicuspid valve [prolapse and other problems] · Accelerators:
Blood pressure high


Barter’s syndrome: pathogenesis, major sign Barter: “In
exchange for giving away Na+,K+,Cl-, you can drop the blood pressure”.


Nephrology Mnemonics of Renal failure: causes AVID GUT:
Acute tubular necrosis
Vascular obstruction
Diffuse intravascular coagulation
Glomerular disease
Urinary obstruction
Tubulointerstitial nephritis


Calcification: metastatic vs. dystrophic Metastatic:
Metabolism imbalance.
Dystrophic: Damaged tissue.


Haemochromatosis definition, classic triad “Iron man triathalon”:
Iron man: deposition of iron in many body tissues.
· Triathalon has 3 components, which match triad:
Swimming: Skin pigmentation
Biking: Bronze diabetes
Marathon: Micronodular pigment cirrhosis


Nephrology Mnemonics of McArdle’s syndrome MCARDLES:
Cramping after exercise
Accumulated glycogen
Recessive inheritance
Deficiency of muscle phosphorylase
Lactate levels fail to rise
Elevated creatine kinase
Skeletal muscle only


Nephrology Mnemonics of Hypercalcemia: symptoms of elevated serum levels “Bones,
Bones: pain in bones
Stones: renal
Groans: pain
Psychic moans/ Psychological overtones: confused state

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