General Pathology Mnemonics – From Wikipedia Mnemonics

General Pathology Mnemonics of Acute intermittent porphyria: signs and symptoms

Ps:

Pain in the abdomen

Polyneuropathy

Psychological abnormalities

Pink urine

Precipitated by
drugs (including barbiturates, oral contraceptives, and sulfa drugs)

 

 

General Pathology Mnemonics of Acute ischemia: signs  especially limbs    

P’s:

Pain

Pallor

Pulselessness

Paralysis

Paraesthesia

Perishingly cold

General Pathology Mnemonics of Anemia
(normocytic): causes

ABCD:

Acute blood loss

Bone marrow failure

Chronic disease

Destruction
(hemolysis)

General Pathology Mnemonics of Anemia
causes (simplified)

ANEMIA:

Anemia of chronic
disease

No folate or B12

Ethanol

Marrow failure &
hemaglobinopathies

Iron deficient

Acute & chronic
blood loss

General Pathology Mnemonics of Atherosclerosis
risk factors

“You’re a SAD BET with these
risk factors”:

Sex: male

Age: middle aged,
elderly

Diabetes mellitus

BP high:
hypertension

Elevated cholesterol

Tobacco

General Pathology Mnemonics of Carcinoid
syndrome: components

CARCinoid:

Cutaneous flushing

Asthmatic wheezing

Right sided valvular
heart lesions

Cramping and
diarrhea

General Pathology Mnemonics of Cushing syndrome

CUSHING:

Central
obesity/ Cervical fat pads/ Collagen fiber
weakness/ Comedones (acne)

Urinary free corisol
and glucose increase

Striae/ Suppressed
immunity

Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism

Iatrogenic
(Increased administration of corticosteroids)

Noniatrogenic
(Neoplasms)

Glucose
intolerance/Growth retardation

General Pathology Mnemonics of Diabetic ketoacidosis: I vs. II

ketONEbodies
are seen in type ONEdiabetes.

General Pathology Mnemonics of Gallstones:
risk factors

5 F’s:

Fat

Female

Fair (gallstones
more common in Caucasians)

Fertile
(premenopausal  increased estrogen is
thought to increase cholesterol levels in bile and decrease gallbladder
contractions)

Forty or above (age) 2

General Pathology Mnemonics of Hepatomegaly:
3 common causes, 3 rarer causes

Common are 3 C’s:

Cirrhosis

Carcinoma

Cardiac failure

Rarer are 3 C’s:

Cholestasis

Cysts

Cellular
infiltration

General Pathology Mnemonics of Hyperkalemia (signs and symptoms)

MURDER 3

Muscle weakness

Urine: oliguria,
anuria

Respiratory distress

Decreased cardiac
contractility

EKG changes (peaked
T waves; QRS widening)

Reflexes:
Hyperreflexia or areflexia (flaccid)

 

Hypernatremia (signs and symptoms)

FRIED SALT

FRIED

Fever (low), Flushed
skin

Restless (irritable)

Increased fluid
retention, Increased blood pressure

Edema (peripheral
and pitting)

Decreased urinary
output, Dry mouth

SALT

Skin flushed

Agitated

Low grade fever

Thirst

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: which has cobblestones

Crohn’s has Cobblestones
on endoscopy.

Morphine:
effects

MORPHINES:

Miosis

Orthostatic
hypotension or “Out of it”

Respiratory
depression

Pain suppression
or Pneumonia

Histamine release
or Hormonal alterations or Hypotension

Increased ICT
or Infrequency (constipation, or urinary retention)

Nausea

Euphoria or Emesis

Sedation

Kwashiorkor:
distinguishing from Marasmus

FLAME:

Fatty

Liver

Anemia

Malabsorption

Edema

Pancreatitis:
causes

GET SMASHED:

Idiopathic/Infection/Ischaemic

Gallstones

Ethanol

Trauma

Steroids/surgery

Mumps/malnutrition/mechanical
obstruction/metabolic

Autoimmune :
Vasculitis

Scorpion sting

Hyperlipidaemia/hypercalcaemia/her
ary/hyperparathyroidism/hypermagnesia

ERCP

Drugs :
Isoniazid, Thiazides, Azathioprine, Valproic Acid, Estrogen 

PKU
findings

PKU:

Pale hair, skin

Krazy (neurological
abnormalities)

Unpleasant smell

Pupils
in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine

“MorPHINE:Fine. AmPHETamine:Fat“:

Morphine overdose:
pupils constricted (fine).

Amphetamine
overdose: pupils dilated (fat).

Pericarditis
findings

PERICarditis:

Pulsus paradoxus

ECG changes

Rub

Increased JVP

Chest pain  worse on inspiration, better when leaning
forward

Gout
vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findings

P seduogout
crystals are:

P ositive
birefringent

P olygon shaped

Gout therefore is
the negative needle shaped crystals. Also, gout classically strikes the
great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi.

Signs
of Chronic Liver Disease

abcdefghij

Asterixis, Ascites, Ankle
oedema, Atrophy of testicles

Bruising

Clubbing/ Colour
change of nails (leuconychia)

Dupuytren’s
contracture

Encephalopathy /
palmar Erythema

Foetor hepaticus

Gynaecomastia

Hepatomegaly

Increase size of
parotids

Jaundice

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