Cardiology Mnemonics of Pathology – Cardiovascular System Mnemonics

Cardiology Mnemonics of Anatomy
To remember heart valve auscultation sites:
MnemonicAll Patients Take Medications
Starting from top left:
Aortic – 2nd intercostal space, right sternal edge
Pulmonary – 2nd intercostal space, left sternal edge
Tricuspid – 4th intercostal space, right sternal edge
Mitral – 5th intercostal space, mid-clavicular line

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Cardiology Mnemonics of Angina
Management through
 lifestyle alterations
Mnemonic: SLEW
S Smoking cessation
Low-fat diet
E Exercise
W Weight loss

 

Cardiology Mnemonics of Management of acute unstable angina
Mnemonic: 2 As and BALI
A Admit, bed rest, high-flow oxygen
Analgesia
A Aspirin and clopidogrel
Beta blockers
Angiography with or without angioplasty/CABG if symptoms fail to improve
L Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)
I Infusion of nitrates

 

Cardiology Mnemonics of Presentation
MnemonicSCAR
S Sudden central pain, ʻtearingʼ in nature, may radiate to the back
C Coronary artery occlusion can lead to chest pain, MI or angina
pectoris/Carotid obstruction can lead to hemiparesis, dysphasia or blackouts
A Anterior spinal artery can be affected leading to paraplegia
R Renal artery can be affected leading to anuria or renal failure

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Cardiology Mnemonics of Cardiac arrest
Management, Basic Life Support (BLS)
Mnemonic: ABC
A Airway: clear and maintain with chin lift/jaw thrust/head tilt (if no spinal injury)
B Breathing: look, listen and feel, if not breathing give two life saving breaths
immediately
Circulation: carotid pulse for at least 10 s, if absent give 15 chest
compressions at 100/min
Continue the cycle of 2 breaths and 30 compressions and check the circulation every
minute, proceed to more advanced life support when possible.

 

Cardiology Mnemonics of Management, Advanced Life Support (ALS)
Mnemonic: CDE (with A after every step)
Cardiac monitor and defibrillator should be attached to the patient
A Assess rhythm and pulse
D Defibrillate x 3 if VF or pulseless VT, CPR for 1 min
A Assess rhythm and pulse
E EMD (no cardiac output despite ECG showing electrical activity) or asystole
warrants CPR for 3 min
A Assess rhythm and pulse

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Cardiology Mnemonics of Hypertension
Treatment
MnemonicABCD
A ACE inhibitors/Angiotensin-II-antagonists (sometimes Alpha-agonists also)
B Beta blockers
C Calcium channel blockers
D Diuretics (Thiazides)

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Cardiology Mnemonics of Cardiovascular risk factors (Framingham) FRAMINGHAM:
Family history
Running (exercise)
Adiposity (obesity)
Marlboros (tobacco)
Insulin resistance (diabetes)
Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
Hypertension
Age
Male

 

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Cardiology Mnemonics of Aneurysm types MAD SCAB:
Mycotic
Atherosclerotic
Dissecting
Syphilitic
Capillary microaneurysm
Arteriovenous fistula
Berry

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Heart failure causes “HEART MADIE”:
Hypertension
Embolism
Anemia
Rheumatic heart disease
Thyrotoxicosis (incl. pregnancy)
Myocardial infarct
Arrythmia

Y
Diet & lifestyle
Infection
Endocarditis

 

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Atherosclerosis risk factors SHIFT MAID:
Smoking
Hypertension
(N)
IDDM
Family history
Triglycerdides & fats
Male
Age
Inactivity
Diet / Drink

 

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Cardiology Mnemonics of MI: the sequence of elevated enzymes after MI “Time to 
CALL 911″:
· From first to appear to last:
Troponin
CK-MB
AST
LDH1

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Atherosclerosis risk factors “You’re a SAD BET with
these risk factors”:

Sex: male
Age: middle-aged, elderly
Diabetes mellitus
BP high: hypertension
Elevated cholesterol
Tobacco

 

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Acute ischemia: signs [especially limbs] 6 P’s:
Pain
Pallor
Pulselessness
Paralysis
Paraesthesia
Perishingly cold

 

Pathology Mnemonics of Cardiovascular System

 

Cardiology Mnemonics of Hypertension: secondary hypertension causes CHAPS:
C
ushing’s syndrome
H
yperaldosteronism [aka Conn’s syndrome]
A
orta coarctation
P
haeochromocytoma
S
tenosis of renal arteries
· Note: only 5% of hypertension cases are secondary, rest are primary.

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