Bone Mnemonics of Pathology – Osteology Mnemonics

Bone Mnemonics of Osteosarcoma: features PEARL HARBOR:
Paget’s disease (10-20%)*
Early age (10-20 yrs)
Around knee
Raised periosteum by expanding
tumor: “sunburst pattern
Lace-like architecture
Hyaline arteoriosclerosis
Alkaline phosphatase increased
Retinoblastoma*
Boys, predominantly
Osteomyelitis DDx
Radiation*
· Sunburst pattern was Japanese Navy emblem during WWII.
*: Predisposing factors.

 

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Features
Mnemonic: RHEUMATISM
R Rheumatoid factor (RF) +ve in 80%/Radial
deviation of wrist
HLA-DR1 and DR-4
E ESR/Extra-articular features (restrictive
lung disease, subcutaneous nodules)
U Ulnar deviation of fingers
M Morning stiffness/MCP+PIP joint swelling
Ankylosis/Atlanto–axial joint
subluxation/Autoimmune/ANA +ve in 30%

T T-cells (CD4)/TNF
Inflammatory synovial tissue (pannus)/IL-1
Swan-neck deformity, Boutonniere deformity,
Z-deformity of thumb
M Muscle wastage of small muscles of hand

Bone Mnemonics of Management
DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs)
Mnemonic: Most Sufferers Can Get Appropriate Pain Control
M Methotrexate
S Sulfasalazine
C Ciclosporin
G Gold
A Azathioprine
P Penicillamine
C HydroxyChloroquine

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

 

Bone Mnemonics of Joint pain
Causes
Mnemonic: ARTHRITIS
A Arthritis – rheumatoid or osteoarthritis
R Reactive arthritides
Tendon/muscle damage
H Hyperuricaemia; gout
Referred pain
I AutoImmune, eg connective tissue
disease – systemic sclerosis, SLE
Tumour
I Ischaemia
Sepsis/Spondyloarthritides

 

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Arthritis
Features
of Ankylosing spondylitis

Mnemonic: SPINAL
Sacroiliac and low back pain
P Pleuritic chest pain
Inherited gene marker: HLA-B27 (>90% HLA-B27
+ve, general population
frequency – 8%)
N Neck hyperextension – question mark
posture
A Arthritic symptoms in peripheries (asymmetrical)
Loss of spinal movement which is progressive

 

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Components of CREST syndrome
Mnemonic: CREST
C Calcinosis
R Raynaudʼs phenomenon
OEsophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasia

 

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Osteomyelitis: complications FIBRES:
Fractures
Intraosseous
(broidie) abscesses

Bacteremi/ Brodie abscess
Reactive
amyloidosis

Endocarditis
Sinus
tracts/ 
Squamous cell CA

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Osteomalacia: features “Vit-D deficiency
in 
ADULT“:
Acetabuli protrusio
Decresed bone density
Under mineralization of osteoid
Looser’s zone (pseudofracture)
Triradiate pelvis (females)

<

p style=”margin: 0in 0in 4.8pt 0in;”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

 

Bone Mnemonics of Phaeochromocytoma: diagnositc
rule
 · Rule of 10’s
10% ectopic
10% multiple
10% malignant

<

p style=”margin: 0in 0in 4.8pt 0in;”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Gout: major features GOUT:
Great toe
One joint (75% monoarticular)
Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis)
Tophi

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Histiocytosis X: hallmark finding “Birbeck’s rackets
is X“:

Tennis
rackets under electron microscope is Histiocystosis X.

Consider
2 tennis rackets in an X formation.

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Gout vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findings Pseduogout
crystals are:

Positive
birefringent

Polygon shaped
·
Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals.

·
Also, gout classically strikes great 
Toe, and its
hallmark is 
Tophi.

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Rheumatoid arthritis:
features
 RHEUMATOID:

Ragocytes/ Rheumatoid
factor (anti-IgG)
HLA-DR4/ HLA-Dw4
ESR
increase/ 
Extra-articular features (restrictive lung disease,
subcutaneous nodules)
Ulnar deviation
Morning
stiffness/ 
MCP joint
Ankylosis/ Atlantoaxial
joint subluxation/ 
Autoimmune/ ANA
T-cells
(CD4)/ 
TNF
Osteopenia
Inflammatory
synovial tissue/
 Idiopathic/ IL-1
Deformities
(swan-neck, boutonniere)

Bone Pathology Mnemonics

 

Marble bone disease: signs and symptoms MARBLES:
Multiple fractures
Anemia
Restricted cranial nerves
Blind & deaf
Liver enlarged
Erlenmeyer flask
deformity

Splenomegaly
· Eponymous name: Marbles = Albers-Schonberg (anagram).

Bone Mnemonics of Carcinomas having tendency to metastasize to bone “Particular
Tumours Love Killing Bone”:
Prostate
Thyroid
Lung
Kidney
Breast

Gout: factors
that can precipitate an attack of acute gouty arthritis

DARK:
Diuretics
Alcohol
Renal disease
Kicked (trauma)
· And, the attack occurs most often at night [thus “dark”].

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

<

p class=”MsoNormal”>

Bone Mnemonics of Paget’s disease
of bone: signs and symptoms
 Four L’s:
Larger hat size
Loss of
hearing: due to compression of nerve
Leontiasis
ossea (lion-like face)
Light-headed
(Paget’s steal)

Leave a Comment