Arteries of the Lower Limb | Arterial Supply of Lower extremities

Arteries of the Lower Limb – Femoral Artery. The main artery of the lower limb is the femoral artery. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery (terminal branch of the abdominal aorta). The external iliac becomes the femoral artery when it crosses under the inguinal ligament and enters the femoral triangle. The arterial supply of the lower limbs originates from the external iliac artery. The common femoral artery is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery, beginning at the level of the inguinal ligament.

In the lower leg, the popliteal artery divides into three major branches: the anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery and fibular (peroneal) artery. The axis artery of the lower limb arises from the dorsal root of the umbilical artery and courses along the dorsal surface of the thigh, the knee and the leg. The femoral artery courses along the ventral surface. The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the thigh and leg. It enters the thigh from behind the inguinal ligament as the continuation of the external iliac artery.

Here, it lies midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis. Angioplasty is a procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that keeps the artery open. Angioplasty and stent placement are two ways to open blocked peripheral arteries.

Femoral artery: – It is the largest artery that brings oxygenated blood to the entire lower extremity.

Branches include: superficial epigastric artery, superficial circumflex iliac artery, superficial external pudendal artery, deep external pudendal artery, deep femoral artery, descending genicular artery



Arteries of Lower Limb

  • Hip and thigh: femoral, gluteal (superior, inferior), obturator, deep femoral, descending genicular arteries.
  • Knee and leg: popliteal, superior genicular (medial, lateral), inferior genicular (medial, lateral), tibial (anterior, posterior), anterior malleolar (medial, lateral), fibular/peroneal arteries.
  • Ankle and foot: malleolar (anterior, posterior) arteries, dorsalis pedis artery/dorsal artery of the foot, plantar arteries (medial, lateral), tarsal arteries (medial, lateral); arcuate artery, dorsal metatarsal arteries, deep plantar arch, plantar metatarsal arteries.
Artery of lower limb and blood supply flow chart || lower extremity arteries anatomy
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