Histology: Research Methods, Structure of Tissues, and Cells

Histology (Greek histo – tissue + logos – research) is the science that studies the tissues of the body and how these tissues are located, forming organs. There are four main tissues known: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue.

In Histology, Tissues are made up of cells and intercellular substance – two components that were previously considered independent of each other. The intercellular substance is formed by various types of molecules, some of them are highly organized and form complex structures such as collagen fibrils and basement membranes.

The main functions of Histology ispreviously attributed to the extracellular substance included providing mechanical support for cells, transporting nutrients to cells, and removing catabolic products and secretory substances. It has now been established that, in addition to these functions, the components of the intercellular substance affect the cells that produce them.

In Histology, there is an active interaction between cells and the intercellular substance (matrix). Moreover, many of the matrix molecules are recognized by receptors on the cell surface and attached to them. Most of these receptors are molecules that permeate cell membranes and are associated with molecules within the cytoplasm.

In Histologycells and intercellular substance form a single system in which they function together and respond to stimulating and depressing influences.

In Histology, Each of the main tissues is formed by cells of several types and, in the typical case, by specific associations of cells and intercellular substance. These characteristic associations help students recognize many types of tissue. Most organs are formed by ordered combinations of several tissues, with the exception of the central nervous system, which is formed almost exclusively by nerve tissue.

In Histology, The harmonious combination of these tissues ensures the functioning of each organ and the body as a whole.

In Histology, Due to the small size of cells and matrix components, the study of histology is associated with the use of microscopes. An improved understanding of tissue biology depends on advances in chemistry, physiology, immunology, pathology, and the interactions between these sciences. Acquaintance with instruments and methods in any field of science is necessary for a correct understanding of its subject.

  1. Basic materials on histology

    1. Research methods in histology
      • What is Histology? Tasks 
      • Preparation of tissues for research. Histological sections
      •  Fixation of tissues for research. Retainers
      • Filling fabrics for research. Blocks of drugs
      • Tissue staining for microscopy. Technics
      • Light microscopy: technique, resolution
      • Phase-contrast microscopy: technique, principles
      • Polarizing microscopy: technique, principles
      • Confocal microscopy: technique, principles
      • Fluorescence microscopy: technique, principles
      • Transmission electron microscopy: technique, principles
      • Scanning electron microscopy: technique, principles
      • Autoradiography of tissue sections: technique, principles
      • Cell and tissue culture. Application
      • Fractionation of cells. Histochemistry, cytochemistry
      • Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and lipids of cells and tissues
      • Immunocytochemistry: polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies
      • Hybridization method in immunocytochemistry: technique, principles
      • Difficulties in examining tissue sections. Causes of problems

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