Benign Mesothelioma, Pleural Mesothelioma, Peritoneal Mesothelioma

A rare, non-cancerous form of mesothelioma. The causes of this neoplasm are not precisely defined, but doctors have made great strides in its treatment. Unlike the malignant form of mesothelioma, associated primarily with asbestos and the consequences of its use and production, the benign form arises for other reasons. Malignant mesothelioma occurs after 20-50 years of exposure to asbestos in people over 40, and benign mesothelioma occurs at any age. Malignant forms of mesothelioma are fatal, while benign ones are successfully treated, and subsequently, the patient only needs to monitor his health in order to avoid relapses and reappearance of the tumor.


What is mesothelioma? Types, symptoms and treatment of mesothelioma gangrene, risk factors

Mesothelioma occurs when previously healthy, normal cells begin to divide rapidly and form a dense patch of tissue. Benign mesothelioma does not invade adjacent tissues and does not spread to internal organs. Mesotheliomas can grow to a fairly large size and squeeze nearby organs. In addition, various types of noncancerous mesotheliomas, such as fibrous mesotheliomas that appear in the pleura, can lead to fluid accumulation and serious consequences such as seizures, hypoglycemia, and difficulty breathing.


Types of mesotheliomas

There are several types of benign mesotheliomas, differentiated by cellular characteristics:

1. Benign polycystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

It occurs in the abdominal cavity (most often in the pelvic region) in young and middle-aged women, but occasionally can appear in men and children.

Symptoms: abdominal pain, swelling.


2. Differentiated papillary mesothelioma.

Formed in the peritoneum and retroperitoneal space in women aged 30-45 years, they are also formed in the pericardium, pleura and vaginal membrane.

Symptoms: pain, accumulation of fluid in the tissues.


3. Adenomatoid mesothelioma.

Localization site: vaginal membrane and uterine wall.

Symptoms: pain, swelling, pressure sensation.


4. Localized fibrous mesothelioma.

Localization site: pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, retroperitoneal space.

Symptoms: cough, pain, shortness of breath, a feeling of heaviness in the chest.

Papillary mesothelioma is most likely to degenerate into a malignant one.


Mesothelioma symptoms

In general, the symptoms of benign mesothelioma are very similar to those of malignant mesothelioma. Most people with benign pleural mesothelioma suffer from the following conditions:

  • dyspnea;
  • chest pain;
  • cough;
  • fever;
  • night sweats;
  • weight loss.

Diagnostics is carried out using X-ray, computed tomography, MRI.


Mesothelioma treatment

In most cases, the main method of getting rid of benign mesothelioma is surgical removal. Unlike cancers, there is no need for postoperative chemotherapy. In case of a threat of recurrence, the patient should undergo periodic examinations in order to avoid the recurrence of the tumor.

Due to the fact that about 75% of people with benign mesothelioma develop a tumor in the lungs, a thoracotomy procedure is necessary. It consists in removing a segment of a lung, a lobe, or even an entire lung. Despite the benign quality of the neoplasm, side effects such as pleurisy, the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, can develop, which puts pressure on the lungs and heart. During the first days after surgery, patients need to organize the outflow of fluid from the lungs to prevent pleural effusion. About 90% of patients recover safely without recurrence of mesotheliomas.

Pleural mesothelioma (benign neoplasm) – structure, signs, treatment

A pleural mesothelioma is a rare form of benign neoplasm of the membrane that separates the lungs from the chest wall. It can be benign and malignant. The latter develops intensively, leading without treatment to a quick lethal outcome and is caused mainly by long-term exposure to the lungs of construction asbestos. Currently, the use of this mineral is prohibited, however, the consequences of its use and industrial production continue to manifest themselves.

A benign mesothelial tumor of the pleura is very similar in symptoms to a malignant one, therefore, its nature can be determined only after a biopsy. Sometimes it takes 10 years or more before changes in well-being begin to appear, indicating pleural disease. These distinctive features are thickening or calcification of certain areas of the pleura – the so-called pleural plaques. They are precursors to mesothelioma and can therefore be removed before it appears.

The structure and location of pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma - structure, signs, treatment
Figure 1 – The structure and location of pleural mesothelioma

Pleural Mesothelioma Treatment

Symptoms: cough, shortness of breath, heaviness and pain in the chest, swelling of the upper body and upper limbs.

In most cases, pleural disease is not considered fatal, but it can lead to inhibition of lung function. Despite its localized location, pleural mesothelioma can spread to the peritoneal region, heart.

A radical method of treatment is the surgical removal of the neoplasm.

Peritoneal mesothelioma (peritoneal mesothelioma, retroperitoneal mesothelioma)

Mesothelioma of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space is a rare type of neoplasm that is malignant and benign.

The peritoneum is a thin membrane formed by the cells that surround the abdominal cavity. The retroperitoneal space is the area outside this membrane.

Peritoneal mesothelioma
Peritoneal mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma, or peritoneal mesothelioma, is a rare disease that is mostly malignant, but there are also benign tumors in this area.

Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma: heaviness in the abdomen, pain, disturbances in the digestive process, impaired acidity, abdominal discomfort, bloating, indigestion.

Treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma: radical removal of the tumor. Shown because of the high risk of tumor transformation into malignant.

Patients with benign peritoneal mesothelioma have a good prognosis. With timely removal and observation after surgery, the survival rate is high and long-term, as after other surgeries in this area of ​​the body. The earlier mesothelioma is detected, the more favorable the prognosis and the lower the risk of degeneration of a benign neoplasm into a cancerous one.