Human Heart Anatomy: The structure of the Heart, Anatomy of Tissues and Cells, Chambers and Valves

Human heart anatomy - coronary system, Cardiac muscle conduction system, Phases of the heart. The structure of the heart: anatomy of tissues and cells - Chambers and valv

The heart is one of the most romantic and sensual organs of the human body. In many cultures, it is considered the seat of the soul, the place where attachment and love originate. However, from an anatomical point of view, the picture looks more prosaic. A healthy heart is a strong muscular organ about the size of its owner’s fist. The work of the heart muscle does not stop for a second from the moment a person is born and until death. By pumping blood, the heart supplies oxygen to all organs and tissues helps to remove decay products and performs part of the body’s cleansing functions. Let’s talk about the features of the anatomical structure of this amazing organ.

Human Heart Anatomy: Historical and Medical Excursion

Cardiology – the science that studies the structure of the heart and blood vessels – was singled out as a separate branch of anatomy back in 1628, when Harvey identified and presented the laws of human blood circulation to the medical community. He demonstrated how the heart, like a pump, pushes blood along the vascular bed in a strictly defined direction, supplying organs with nutrients and oxygen.

The heart is located in the thoracic region of a person, slightly to the left of the central axis. The shape of the organ can vary depending on the individual characteristics of the structure of the body, age, constitution, sex, and other factors. So, in stout, short people, the heart is more rounded than in thin and tall people. It is believed that its shape roughly matches the circumference of a tightly clenched fist, and its weight ranges from 210 grams for women to 380 grams for men.

The volume of blood pumped by the heart muscle per day is approximately 7-10 thousand liters, and this work is carried out continuously! The amount of blood can vary due to physical and psychological conditions. Under stress, when the body needs oxygen, the load on the heart increases significantly: at such moments it can move blood at a speed of up to 30 liters per minute, restoring the body’s reserves. Nevertheless, the organ is not able to constantly work for wear and tear: at rest moments, the blood flow slows down to 5 liters per minute, and the muscle cells that form the heart rest and recover.

Human muscle anatomy, or what determines the strength of a person

Human muscle anatomy, or what determines the strength of a person

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The muscular system is the foundation of physical health. Human muscle anatomy is represented by more than 600 different fibers, which make up 47% of the total body weight. Not only the movement of the body in space depends on their functionality, but also many physiological processes: swallowing, blood circulation, chewing, metabolism, heart contractions, etc. various physical activities and perform most of the work. Therefore, a detailed study of the structure of muscles, their classification and functionality is considered one of the key sections of anatomy.

Detailed structure of muscle tissue

Each muscle taken separately is an integral organ, consisting of many small muscle fibers – myocytes, as well as dense and loose connective tissue in different proportions. There are 2 functional zones in it: the abdomen and the tendon. The abdomen performs mainly a contractile function, therefore it is represented by a combination of connective tissue substance and myocytes, capable of contraction and excitation. The tendon is considered the passive part of the muscle. It is located at the edges and consists of dense connective tissue, thanks to which fibers attach to bones and joints.

Innervation and blood supply to each muscle is carried out due to the thinnest capillaries and nerve fibers located between bundles of 10-50 myocytes. Thanks to this, muscle tissue receives the necessary nutrition, is supplied with oxygen and nutrients, and can also contract in response to an impulse transmitted by the nerve tissue.

muscles, running

Read MoreHuman muscle anatomy, or what determines the strength of a person

Tissues: Anatomy, Structural Features and Functions Performed

Tissues: Anatomy, Structural Features and Functions Performed

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the human body contains more than two hundred different types of cells, each of which is unique. Dividing them into groups called tissues allows a similar structure and origin, as well as the functions performed. Tissues are the next hierarchical level of human anatomy after cells. They are a symbiosis of cells and intercellular space, the structure of which allows them to perform the functions assigned to them, thereby supporting the normal vital activity of the body.

In humans, 4 types of tissues are distinguished: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous. Each of them is formed as a result of cell differentiation during the formation of the organism. What are the features of tissue anatomy, how do they interact and what functions do they perform? Anatomical reference will help you understand these issues!

Human tissue anatomy: from homogeneous cells to a highly differentiated organism

Formation of tissues, maintaining their shape and performing general functions is a complex process programmed in the body by DNA molecules. It is thanks to genetic information that cells are capable of differentiation – a biochemical process, as a result of which initially homogeneous units acquire specific features that subsequently allow them to perform certain functions. Thanks to this process, 4 types of tissues with similar anatomy and physiology appear in the body.

It is noteworthy that after differentiation, tissue cells retain their inherent features even in a new environment. To prove this, in 1952, experts at the University of Chicago carried out a visual study by dividing the cells of a chicken embryo and cultivating them in special enzymes. As a result of this experience, new colonies were formed, but at the same time the reactions and “behavior” of cells in the new structural environment were typical for the particular type of tissue from which they originally originated.

To understand how cells interact in the human body, consider the tissue anatomy in more detail.

Epithelium