Cortisol – Biochemical Role and Action of Cortisol Hormone

Cortisol may be a steroid hormone, within the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a drug, it’s called hydrocortisone. it’s produced in many animals mainly by the zona fascicle of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. 

Secretion of this hormone is regulated by the hypothalamic hormone, CRH, and therefore the pituitary hormone, ACTH, within the hypothalamus – (pituitary-adrenal). Cortisol is understood as a stress hormone involved in the response to physical and or emotional stress and also involves the maintenance of assorted homeostatic functions like system, vital sign, Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and also involves anti-inflammatory action. The deficiency of this hormone ends up in diseases like Addison’s syndrome, while cortisol overgrowth is related to Cushing’s syndrome.


Hormone balance is important for human health and you’ll have an issue if your adrenal glands release an excessive amount of or insufficient hormone level. Cortisol helps in many conditions such as;-

  1. Your body responds to worry or danger
  2. Increase your body’s glucose metabolism
  3. Control your blood pressure
  4. Reduce inflammation

This Steroid hormone is additionally required for a fight or flight response that’s a healthy, natural response to perceived threats and the number of these hormones produced by your body is extremely regulated to confirm the balance is correct or not.

Biochemical action of adrenocorticosteroids 
Biochemical action of adrenocorticosteroids

What factor triggers the adrenal glands to supply/release Cortisol hormone?

The production of cortisol by the adrenal glands is controlled by the hypophysis. The pituitary may be a pea-shaped gland at the bottom of the brain that’s sometimes called the “master gland” due to its wide impact on the body. When you get up, exercise, otherwise you are experiencing a stressful event, your hypophysis reacts. It sends a sign to the adrenal glands to supply just the proper amount of cortisol.


What happens in your body, after you produce an excessive amount of or less amount of Cortisol hormone?

Your body usually produces the proper amount of cortisol in a very condition like glandular disease, it produces an excessive amount. in a very condition like Addison’s disease, it produces little or no.


Symptoms of an excessive amount of this hormone include:

  • Weight gain, especially around the stomach and face
  • Thin and delicate skin which is slow to heal
  • Acne
  • For women, facial hair, and irregular menstruation.


Symptoms of adequate of this glucocorticoid hormone which doesn’t include:

  • Constant fatigue
  • nausea and vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • stomach ache.

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