Allosteric enzymes have additional sites, known as allosteric sites besides the active site. These allosteric sites are unique places on the enzyme; In allosteric enzymes can have one or more allosteric site.
Summary of Allosteric Enzymes
Allosteric enzymes have some molecules that bind to allosteric sites are called an effector.
The effector may be two types: – 1) Activator and 2) inhibitor. Allosteric regulation can be positive (By activator) or negative (By inhibitor), increasing or decreasing the activity of the enzyme.
Allosteric Enzyme activator causes a conformational change which increases the attraction of enzyme for substrate. The allosteric activators can increase the rate of reaction, i.e. extracellular ligand binding to the transmembrane receptor and cause conformational change which is results inactivate intracellular kinase activity. If enzymes are composed of many subunits then binding of allosteric activator to single subunits may cause an increase in attraction and change shapes for all subunits.
Allosteric Enzymes inhibitors which are bind to allosteric sites change shape which reduces the interaction of enzyme and substrate. The allosteric inhibitor is allowing enzymatic products to limit their own production called feedback inhibition which stops the overproduction of products. I.e. isoleucine is an allosteric inhibitor of enzymes that are important in their synthesis.
Allosteric enzymes play a pivotal role in cells because they have two functions – they not only catalyze reactions in metabolic pathways but also control the rates of these pathways.
TYPES OF ALLOSTERIC REGULATION: – 1) Homotropic. 2) Heterotropic
1) Homotropic: – Substrate also acts as an effector which can affect the binding of the substrate. Homotropic is the Binding of one molecule to the same multiprotein complex. In this situation, the first ligand is a positive allosteric regulator.
2) Heterotropic: – Heterotropic allosteric effectors are regulatory molecules that are not also the enzyme’s substrate else It can be an activator or an inhibitor of the enzyme.